# Source code for cvxpy.atoms.geo_mean

"""

you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
You may obtain a copy of the License at

Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
"""

from cvxpy.atoms.atom import Atom
import numpy as np
import scipy.sparse as sp
from cvxpy.utilities.power_tools import (fracify, decompose, approx_error, lower_bound,
over_bound, prettydict)

[docs]class geo_mean(Atom):
""" The (weighted) geometric mean of vector x, with optional powers given by p:

.. math::

\\left(x_1^{p_1} \\cdots x_n^{p_n} \\right)^{\\frac{1}{\\mathbf{1}^Tp}}

The powers p can be a list, tuple, or numpy.array of nonnegative
int, float, or Fraction objects with nonzero sum.

If not specified, p defaults to a vector of all ones, giving the
**unweighted** geometric mean

.. math::

x_1^{1/n} \\cdots x_n^{1/n}.

The geometric mean includes an implicit constraint that :math:x_i \\geq 0
whenever :math:p_i > 0. If :math:p_i = 0, :math:x_i will be unconstrained.

The only exception to this rule occurs when
p has exactly one nonzero element, say, p_i, in which case
geo_mean(x, p) is equivalent to x_i (without the nonnegativity constraint).
A specific case of this is when :math:x \\in \\mathbf{R}^1.

.. note::

Generally, p cannot be represented exactly, so a rational,
i.e., fractional, **approximation** must be made.

Internally, geo_mean immediately computes an approximate normalized
weight vector :math:w \\approx p/\\mathbf{1}^Tp
and the geo_mean atom is represented as

.. math::

x_1^{w_1} \\cdots x_n^{w_n},

where the elements of w are Fraction objects that sum to exactly 1.

The maximum denominator used in forming the rational approximation
is given by max_denom, which defaults to 1024, but can be adjusted
to modify the accuracy of the approximations.

The approximating w and the approximation error can be
found through the attributes geo_mean.w and geo_mean.approx_error.

Examples
--------

The weights w can be seen from the string representation of the
geo_mean object, or through the w attribute.

>>> from cvxpy import Variable, geo_mean, Problem, Maximize
>>> x = Variable(3, name='x')
>>> print(geo_mean(x))
geo_mean(x, (1/3, 1/3, 1/3))
>>> g = geo_mean(x, [1, 2, 1])
>>> g.w
(Fraction(1, 4), Fraction(1, 2), Fraction(1, 4))

Floating point numbers with few decimal places can sometimes be represented
exactly. The approximation error between w and p/sum(p) is given by
the approx_error attribute.

>>> import numpy as np
>>> x = Variable(4, name='x')
>>> p = np.array([.12, .34, .56, .78])
>>> g = geo_mean(x, p)
>>> g.w
(Fraction(1, 15), Fraction(17, 90), Fraction(14, 45), Fraction(13, 30))
>>> g.approx_error
0.0

In general, the approximation is not exact.

>>> p = [.123, .456, .789, .001]
>>> g = geo_mean(x, p)
>>> g.w
(Fraction(23, 256), Fraction(341, 1024), Fraction(295, 512), Fraction(1, 1024))
>>> 1e-4 <= g.approx_error <= 1e-3
True

The weight vector p can contain combinations of int, float,
and Fraction objects.

>>> from fractions import Fraction
>>> x = Variable(4, name='x')
>>> g = geo_mean(x, [.1, Fraction(1,3), 0, 2])
>>> print(g)
geo_mean(x, (3/73, 10/73, 0, 60/73))
>>> g.approx_error <= 1e-10
True

Sequences of Fraction and int powers can often be represented **exactly**.

>>> p = [Fraction(1,17), Fraction(4,9), Fraction(1,3), Fraction(25,153)]
>>> x = Variable(4, name='x')
>>> print(geo_mean(x, p))
geo_mean(x, (1/17, 4/9, 1/3, 25/153))

Terms with a zero power will not have an implicit nonnegativity constraint.

>>> p = [1, 0, 1]
>>> x = Variable(3, name='x')
>>> obj = Maximize(geo_mean(x,p))
>>> constr = [sum(x) <= 1, -1 <= x, x <= 1]
>>> val = Problem(obj, constr).solve()
>>> x = np.array(x.value).flatten()
>>> print(x)
[ 1. -1.  1.]

Parameters
----------
x : Variable
A column or row vector whose elements we will take the geometric mean of.

p : Sequence (list, tuple, ...) of int, float, or Fraction objects
A vector of weights for the weighted geometric mean

When p is a sequence of int and/or Fraction objects,
w can often be an **exact** representation of the weights.
An exact representation is sometimes possible when p has float
elements with only a few decimal places.

max_denom : int
The maximum denominator to use in approximating p/sum(p) with
geo_mean.w. If w is not an exact representation, increasing
max_denom **may** offer a more accurate representation, at the
cost of requiring more convex inequalities to represent the geometric mean.

Attributes
----------
w : tuple of Fractions
A rational approximation of p/sum(p).
approx_error : float
The error in approximating p/sum(p) with w, given by
:math:\\|p/\\mathbf{1}^T p - w \\|_\\infty
"""

def __init__(self, x, p=None, max_denom=1024):
""" Implementation details of geo_mean.

Attributes
----------

w_dyad : tuple of Fractions whose denominators are all a power of two
The dyadic completion of w, which is used internally to form the
inequalities representing the geometric mean.

tree : dict
keyed by dyadic tuples, whose values are Sequences of children.
The children are also dyadic tuples.
This represents the graph that needs to be formed to represent the
weighted geometric mean.

cone_lb : int
A known lower bound (which is not always tight) on the number of cones
needed to represent this geometric mean.

cone_num_over : int
The number of cones beyond the lower bound that this geometric mean used.
If 0, we know that it used the minimum possible number of cones.
Since cone_lb is not always tight, it may be using the minimum number of cones even if
cone_num_over is not 0.

cone_num : int
The number of second order cones used to form this geometric mean

"""
super(geo_mean, self).__init__(x)

x = self.args[0]
if x.is_vector():
n = 1 if x.ndim == 0 else max(x.shape)
else:
raise ValueError('x must be a row or column vector.')

if p is None:
p = [1]*n
self.p = p

if len(p) != n:
raise ValueError('x and p must have the same number of elements.')

if any(v < 0 for v in p) or sum(p) <= 0:
raise ValueError('powers must be nonnegative and not all zero.')

self.approx_error = approx_error(p, self.w)

# known lower bound on number of cones needed to represent w_dyad

# number of cones used past known lower bound

# number of cones used
self.cone_num = self.cone_lb + self.cone_num_over

# Returns the (weighted) geometric mean of the elements of x.
def numeric(self, values):
values = np.array(values[0]).flatten()
val = 1.0
for x, p in zip(values, self.w):
val *= x**float(p)
return val

def _domain(self):
"""Returns constraints describing the domain of the node.
"""
# No special case when only one non-zero weight.
selection = np.array([w_i > 0 for w_i in self.w])
return [self.args[0][selection > 0] >= 0]

"""Gives the (sub/super)gradient of the atom w.r.t. each argument.

Matrix expressions are vectorized, so the gradient is a matrix.

Args:
values: A list of numeric values for the arguments.

Returns:
A list of SciPy CSC sparse matrices or None.
"""
x = np.array(values[0])
# No special case when only one non-zero weight.
w_arr = np.array([float(w_i) for w_i in self.w])
# Outside domain.
if np.any(x[w_arr > 0] <= 0):
return [None]
else:
D = w_arr/x.ravel(order='F')*self.numeric(values)
return [sp.csc_matrix(D).T]

def name(self):
return "%s(%s, (%s))" % (self.__class__.__name__,
self.args[0].name(),
', '.join(str(v) for v in self.w))

def pretty_tree(self):
print(prettydict(self.tree))

def shape_from_args(self):
"""Returns the (row, col) shape of the expression.
"""
return tuple()

def sign_from_args(self):
"""Returns sign (is positive, is negative) of the expression.
"""
# Always positive.
return (True, False)

def is_atom_convex(self):
"""Is the atom convex?
"""
return False

def is_atom_concave(self):
"""Is the atom concave?
"""
return True

def is_atom_log_log_convex(self):
"""Is the atom log-log convex?
"""
return True

def is_atom_log_log_concave(self):
"""Is the atom log-log concave?
"""
return True

def is_incr(self, idx):
"""Is the composition non-decreasing in argument idx?
"""
return True

def is_decr(self, idx):
"""Is the composition non-increasing in argument idx?
"""
return False

def get_data(self):

def copy(self, args=None, id_objects={}):
"""Returns a shallow copy of the geo_mean atom.

Parameters
----------
args : list, optional
The arguments to reconstruct the atom. If args=None, use the
current args of the atom.

Returns
-------
geo_mean atom
"""
if args is None:
args = self.args
# Avoid calling __init__() directly as we do not have p and max_denom.
copy = type(self).__new__(type(self))
super(type(self), copy).__init__(*args)
# Emulate __init__()